Idea: Surfing

tedrutops tedrutops 3 months ago

Surfing is usually associated with warm ocean beaches like those found in the U.S. states of Hawaii and California, and countries such as Australia. Surfers, however, do not limit themselves to warm weather or ocean waves. Surfers dust a foot of snow off their surfboards to chase waves off the coast of Antarctica. They trek through jungles to pristine beaches in Southeast Asia. They share the water with great white sharks in South Africa. They even ride the “silver dragon,” the giant tidal bore of China’s Qiantang River.

Surfing is possible in all these places because the concept is simple. A breaking wave, a board and a brave athlete are all that is needed for the sport. (Sometimes, you don’t even need the board. This is called bodysurfing.)

The concept is simple, but the practice is not. Surfers paddle or are towed in to the surf line, the area of open water where waves break as they near a coast. There, surfers sit on their boards and watch waves roll in to shore. Experienced surfers assess several different qualities in every wave. A wave must be strong enough to ride, but not dangerous enough to toss the surfer as it breaks. Surfers must be able to ride and safely exit the wave—not too close to shore or rocks. For river waves or those at artificial surfing facilities, surfers watch waves develop and jump right into the breaking wave.

When surfers see a wave they can ride, they paddle quickly to catch the rising wave. Just as the wave breaks, the surfers jump from their bellies to their feet, crouching on their boards. Being able to stand up is the mark of an experienced surfer. Surfers ride the wave as it breaks toward the shore. As the wave falls and loses power, surfers can exit the wave by turning their boards back toward open water. Surfers can also exit by simply lowering themselves back to their boards and paddling back out. Of course, the force of the wave can end surfers’ rides by crashing on or over them. Surfers can be tossed above a wave or below it. Then the process of paddling out to the surf line begins again.

Surfers must be aware of their physical skills as well as the environment. There are several different types of surfing (longboard, shortboard or big-wave, for instance). Each requires a different sets of skills. All surfers must be aware of weather patterns and topography, or surface features, of the shore. Experienced surfers are also familiar with bathymetry, the depth of the body of water. They must be strong swimmers. Surfers must also have an excellent sense of balance and be able to quickly react to changes in the environment. (For this reason, skateboarding is a common hobby among surfers—and surfing is a common hobby among skateboarders.)

Men and women from all over the world practice surfing, and the surfing community shares a concern for the ocean environment.


Surfing depends on the science of hydrodynamics. Hydrodynamics is the study of water in motion. Oceanographers, ship captains, and engineers must all be familiar with hydrodynamics.

Surfers seek out strong waves called swells. Swells are stable waves that form far away from the beach. Swells are formed by storm systems or other wind patterns.

Two things determine the strength of a swell. First, swells are influenced by the strength of the winds that form them. Swells can help predict how strong a storm is as it approaches land. Most storm systems that form far out to sea never reach land with much strength. Sometimes, however, they do. These storms arrive as hurricanes or typhoons. Hours before a hurricane approaches shore, large and frequent swells signal its arrival. Surfers have been known to ignore hurricane warnings and stay out on stormy beaches because the swells are so frequent and strong.

The second feature that influences swell strength is the wind’s fetch. Fetch is a geographic term that describes the amount of open water over which a wind has blown. The length of fetch is why ocean swells are usually much stronger than lake swells. In the open ocean, a wave's fetch can be thousands of kilometers.

Weather forecasting can predict both elements of swells—offshore storm systems and the length of a wind’s fetch. Surfers consult these surf zone forecasts and can chase swells all over the world.

Not all waves are swells, however. Most are smaller, more unpredictable waves, called wind waves. Swells are a type of wind wave (they are caused by wind), but the term usually refers to waves caused by wind with a shorter fetch. Wind waves have more chop than swells. Chop is the amount of short, irregular shifts in wave formation. Choppy water can be dangerous for surfers because the direction and strength of waves change from minute to minute.

Breaking Waves Both wind waves and swells must break (crash) for them to be of use to surfers. A calm day with no wind may be perfect for beachgoers, but makes for lousy surfing weather. Surfers need a reliable set of breaking waves, which requires moderate offshore wind.

The most significant factor in how a wave develops is the underwater topography. Topography is the surface features of an area. Waves can be weakened or strengthened by topographical features of the seabed.

Surf breaks are permanent features that cause waves to break in a predictable way. Reefs, sandbars, and large underwater boulders are examples of common surf breaks. Ocean trenches and submarine canyons can also determine how a wave breaks. Surfers must account for the presence of sea life, such as a kelp forest, a dense cluster of large seaweed. Seaweed can slow a breaking wave.

A wave breaks when its base (the water beneath the surface) can no longer sustain its height. Near shore, waves break because water gets shallower as it nears a beach. The shallower a wave base, the more likely the wave is to break. The region of water where waves begin to break is called the surf line. Waves crash forward, their tips turning frothy and white. Sometimes, a breaking wave crashes into another wave. Other waves curl in on themselves, forming a tube near the crest, or top. Many surfers consider these tubular wave breaks the most desirable to surf.

There are four major types of waves. Experienced surfers can ride all four types, although each has its own difficulties.

Rolling waves (1) are the most familiar waves, and the type most surfers prefer. These waves break in a stable pattern. Rolling waves are usually a feature of a flat, sandy shoreline. The rolling waves at Hossegor, France, on the Bay of Biscay, can reach more than 6 meters (20 feet).

Dumping waves (2) are more unpredictable. These waves are the result of an abrupt change in seabed topography. A steep underwater cliff or mountain can create dumping waves. These waves are usually limited to experienced surfers, as they are dangerous. Dumping waves can dump surfers far beneath the water’s surface with great force.

Dumping waves can be the result of point breaks. Point breaks occur when a wave hits a point of rocky shore jutting into the ocean. Agadir, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, boasts several strong point breaks.

Dumping waves can also result from reef breaks. Reef breaks occur as waves pass over a coral or rocky reef. Reef breaks can be quite dangerous if the wave dumps the surfer on the reef. However, reef breaks provide some of the most rewarding waves. In Fiji, a reef break called Cloudbreak draws many experienced surfers.

Surging waves (3) are the most dangerous. They are most often present on steep or rocky shores. Unlike rolling or dumping waves, surging waves do not break as they near the shore. They break only at the shore itself. Surging waves are dramatic as they crash against rocky cliffs, for instance. They have the ability to throw surfers against the rock or reef, as well as drag them back to the ocean.

Surging waves are often produced by large storms. Surfers can ride waves ahead of storms or waves produced by storms hitting land far away. Surfers in western Florida, for instance, flocked to beaches as Hurricane Ike hit the western Gulf of Mexico in 2008.

Standing waves (4) are also called stationary waves. These waves are constant and do not lose strength. The factors that contribute to these waves—the topography of the region, water flow and wind patterns—do not change. Examples of standing waves are river rapids and waves created by artificial wave machines, called wave pools. In landlocked areas, wave pools (often located at water parks) allow surfers to practice without having to travel. The first wave pool in the U.S. was established in 1969 in Tempe, Arizona.

Shippers jockey for limited vessel space, but some companies are getting priced out of the market for international freight transportation Photo of Eric Kulisch, Air Cargo Editor Eric Kulisch, Air Cargo Editor Follow on TwitterFriday, July 30, 2021 11 minutes read A stack of ocean freight containers with dollar bills added to image to show how expensive shipping has become. Container rates have hit the stratosphere this year. It's a function of too many shipments chasing too few boxes. (Photo: Jim Allen/FreightWaves)

The blows to the global supply chain never seem to end in 2021, resulting in delays that have sharply reduced the system’s effective capacity and put upward pressure on shipping rates that began reaching record highs months ago. Purchasing ocean transportation has become so expensive that many companies with lower-value commodities can’t afford to import anymore, analysts and logisticians say.

Vessel operators have no extra ships to meet a tidal wave of freight demand, containers are in short supply or can’t get quickly repositioned where needed, and destination ports are piling up with boxes because they can’t keep up with the volume. The logjam, which is adding weeks of delay for major export trades from Asia, has been exacerbated by a series of weather- and COVID-related events, as well as operational mishaps.

How extreme is the situation?

One ocean carrier told a company it would cost $32,000 to ship a group of standard containers from Shanghai to Los Angeles, Craig Grossgart, senior vice president of ocean at SEKO Logistics, said during a briefing for reporters late last month.

“It was a nice way for the carrier to say, ‘We’re not interested in any more business,’ ” Grossgart said.

The quote was an outlier — the type primarily for customers asking to move large backlogs of boxes all at once — but is an indication of how desperate some shippers are and how selective carriers can be when they hold the cards.

On Wednesday, the Freightos Baltic Daily Index adjusted its methodology for tracking ocean shipping rates to include for the first time premium surcharges required for bookings, substantially raising transparency into the real cost paid by cargo owners.

The index shows Asia-U.S. West Coast rates at $18,345, six times higher than a year ago, and the price for shipping to the U.S. East Coast quadrupled to $19,620 per forty-foot equivalent unit. Rates from Asia to Northern Europe climbed 4% since last week, and are more than eight times higher than a year ago and 2.5 times more than at the start of the year.

Soaring transportation inflation is more than some can absorb.

Importers of low-value commodities, such as wooden assembled furniture, that built their business models around $1,400 shipping rates have stopped placing orders because they are losing money under current market conditions, according to shipping analysts and practitioners.

“We’ve seen customers have to make really tough decisions, prioritizing what inventory they absolutely need and which they don’t. And at a certain point, some businesses are just being priced out,” Judah Levine, research lead at Freightos, said during a company webinar last week.

Unicorn market

Shippers say they are unable to get containers or space on vessels at ports of origin, as demand for ocean freight continues to outstrip supply, keeping ports congested and prices high.

The main culprit is breakout consumer spending in North America, which has increased import levels by 10% in the first half of 2021 compared to 2019. The demand is pulling ships and equipment from other parts of the world, creating scarcity in those regions.

Consumer spending in the European Union is up 1.4% from 2019, comparable to normal annual growth.

The massive tide of imports has cascaded into air transport, trucking, rail and warehousing, overwhelming capacity in many commercial centers. Carriers canceled many sailings to help restore schedules.

A large container vessel heading to the Port of Houston. (Photo: Jim Allen/FreightWaves) As if that weren’t enough, Chinese factories didn’t take a normal break during the Lunar New Year holiday, preventing transport networks from taking up some slack. COVID outbreaks severely reduced productivity at ocean terminals, and then a big ship, the Ever Given, got stuck in the Suez Canal — adding to the backlogs.

Just when logistics managers thought there might be a chance to improve freight flows, more supply chain fires have flared up — literally.

The resumption of normal activity at the massive Yantian port in China following a partial COVID-related quarantine was cause for optimism. But this month:

Wildfires have disrupted inland intermodal traffic on two major rail lines serving the Port of Vancouver, Canada. Devastating floods in Europe knocked out factories and river barge service. COVID lockdowns have created factory and port backlogs in Vietnam and Malaysia. Civil unrest in South Africa forced ocean terminals in Durban to close. Typhoon In-fa is causing shipping delays in China. Meanwhile, major U.S. freight railroads are metering intermodal freight from ports to Midwest hubs to restore degraded service levels, with Union Pacific going as far as suspending service for a week from West Coast ports to Chicago.

The amount of time it takes for a box to get from a vessel onto a train at the docks is 18 days in Seattle, two weeks in Oakland and more than a week at the Port of Savannah, according to the latest data from Sea-Intelligence

The ocean delays have soaked up the equivalent of 25% of all trans-Pacific capacity, while demand has soared 25%, the container shipper analyst said.

“That is equivalent to taking every large vessel bigger than 18,000 TEU out of rotation, parking all the mega-vessels in the world,” Sanne Manders, chief operating officer for Flexport, a San Francisco-based freight forwarder, said Wednesday during a company webinar.

Transit times, including cargo staging at origin and the vessel voyage, from Shanghai to Chicago via the port of Los Angeles/Long Beach have more than doubled to 73 days from 35 days, he said. That means it takes 146 days for a container to circulate back to the point of origin for reloading, effectively reducing container capacity by 50%.

On Thursday, Drewry’s World Container Index increased 4%, or $344, to $9,330 per FEU, a 368% increase from the same week a year ago. Freight rates from Shanghai to New York soared 13%, or $1,562, to reach $13,434 per FEU and increased 6%, to $10,503, for transit to Los Angeles. But those are the averages for short-term transactions before any accessorial charges are tacked on.

The current floating average spot market rate – basically an average of averages – from Asia is $10,000 to the U.S. West Coast. Add $3,000 to $9,000 in equipment surcharges and priority loading premiums, and the effective rate to move a box is $13,000 to $19,000 — 10 times more than before the crisis, according to analysis by Flexport. Average rates are $2,000 more to the East Coast, putting the true shipping cost at $16,000 to $21,000. To Northern Europe, the effective cost is $15,000 to $20,000.

And the pain for shippers could soon increase as the traditional peak season kicks and carriers begin charging port congestion and demand-surge fees, while limiting intermodal bookings. Container line Hapag-Lloyd, for example, will apply a $5,000-per-FEU surcharge for trans-Pacific eastbound shipments starting in mid-August, and other carriers are formalizing similar fees.

Trans-Atlantic rates to the U.S. had been relatively stable but have spiked in the second quarter as carriers pull capacity to other regions of high demand. Shipping from Europe to South America, for example, has gone from about $800 to $900 a box to more than $3,000, Freightos data shows.

Large shippers that have annual contracts that are lower than spot rates are also paying significantly more for ocean transportation. Many carriers are not honoring the contract rates to take advantage of the frothy spot market. Since the start of the year, contract rates are up about 40% globally (about 15% to $4,400 on the Asia-to-East Coast lane), according to data from Oslo, Norway-based Xenata, which benchmarks and digitally analyzes freight rates. Rates increased 2.3% in June, after surging 9% in May.

Capacity in the Asia-U.S. West Coast lane is so constrained and demand is so strong that most shippers are engaging in offline bidding wars and leveraging relationships to get loads on a vessel.

Since not everyone is paying the benchmark rate, freight indices, especially the Shanghai Container Freight Index, have lost their accuracy, logistics managers say.

(For more information about SONAR click here.) The higher rates aren’t resulting in better service. In fact, schedule reliability — within a day of scheduled arrival — for ocean carriers is about 35% to 40% globally, and 25% at West Coast ports, according to Sea-Intelligence. Three-quarters of vessels that are late are late by 10 days.

Some carriers are omitting selected port calls altogether. The 2M alliance recently announced it would not be stopping at Rotterdam, Netherlands, on its Asia-North Europe loops for the next seven weeks, with THE Alliance following suit. Maersk and Mediterranean Shipping Co., meanwhile, are skipping Hamburg, Germany, on their AE7/Condor loop for another four weeks due to ongoing congestion.

Pain tolerance

While shippers of high-value goods that rapidly lose value with time, such as electronics and fashion, may be willing and able to pay almost anything to get trapped inventory moved, others have pulled back because shipping costs have erased profit margins.

They are forcing some companies to hold off on new orders, consider sourcing products in Mexico or Central America, or make other adjustments.

Xenata CEO and co-founder Peter Berglund said some customers are now paying $300 million per year for freight transportation that previously had a logistics budget one-third that size.

“If you’re Nike or Adidas moving sneakers, you can do it. But if the value of cargo inside the container is $30,000 and you pay $11,000 to move the box, then you have a huge problem,” he said on the June 30 edition of “WHAT THE TRUCK?!?” on FreightWavesTV.

Port of Los Angeles (Photo: Jim Allen/FreightWaves) An average 40-foot container holds about 300 refrigerators. Before the pandemic, the transportation price spread among them was $12 to $16 per unit. Now, it’s closer to $70, said Akhil Nair, vice president of global carrier management and ocean strategy in the Asia-Pacific for SEKO Logistics.

“That’s a significant percentage of the retail price when you can buy one for $300,” he said. “There will be some room to raise the prices to the consumer, but if that happens across the board, across all segments, I think that’s where [demand could eventually drop.]

When does it end?

The consensus among logistics executives is that the transportation crunch won’t ease before the Chinese Lunar New Year next February.

Robert Khachatryan, founder of Freight Right Global Logistics, is even more pessimistic about how long current conditions will last unless consumers get spooked by inflation or there is an outside event that slows the economy.

“I don’t expect demand to curtail or the dynamics to change probably until mid next year, and even that may not hold. It all comes down to, is there a new equilibrium for prices?” he said on a recent Freightos podcast.

“This isn’t even an ocean capacity issue, it’s an infrastructure capacity issue,” he added. “Even before we get to peak season, the Port of Los Angeles is operating at about 160% capacity, so it doesn’t matter how many ships you add if you were able to add ships, the problem is not going away. So the demand needs to go down by 60-70% for us to see a real improvement.”

U.S. consumers have plenty of extra spending power these days after saving more during the COVID crisis, with the monthly average savings rate nearly doubling to 13.6%. Enhanced unemployment benefits won’t end until September, and the government recently began issuing billions of dollars to families in advance payments for child tax credits, which the American Rescue Plan raised to $3,000 with a $600 bonus for children under the age of 6.

Shopping for fashion and back-to-school items is expected to be strong as people replenish wardrobes for work and buy materials for the classroom for the first time in two years.

There are, however, some cautionary economic notes.

The delta variant is spreading rapidly, there are growing numbers of breakthrough infections for vaccinated people and U.S. hospitalization numbers have quadrupled this month. People may not be as willing to travel or return to an office because of the increased risk of infection.

Meanwhile, consumer confidence has fallen dramatically, according to research from Morning Consult. And, while retail sales increased in June, the increase was largely due to higher prices. Spending actually declined, which could be a sign of slower second-half growth.

But, experts say, with inventories at record lows even if demand growth ends, restocking will continue to drive trans-Pacific trade for several months.

More immediately, the National Retail Federation is projecting import volumes at U.S. ports to spike in August at the front end of the traditional peak season, indicating to many industry observers that importers are placing orders early to avoid delays of holiday merchandise. Ocean imports are expected to taper in the fall, but with double-digit increases compared to 2019, the decline isn’t likely to significantly reduce rates or delays.

Logistics managers say peak season freight has already been pulled forward this summer and Henry Byers, FreightWaves’ ocean market expert, predicts that will result in the longest vessel wait times that have been seen since early February when 25 to 40 ships queued for up to eight days waiting for a berth. A huge number of containers also will be routed to East Coast ports.

“As of May we were shipping Christmas products already. We have people trying to get their product to the U.S. whenever there is space available,” said Khachatryan. “They’re not going to wait until September.”

SEKO Logistics is urging customers to book with carriers eight weeks ahead of planned departure because each week that goes by could add many more waiting in line, said Chief Growth Officer Brian Bourke. That type of pre-commitment requires strong communication and factory forecasts from shippers, he explained.

According to a fact sheet on the logistics provider’s website, retailers that need product on the store shelf by Nov. 1 should make sure it gets on a vessel by Aug. 21 for East Coast destinations and by Sept. 3 for Western locations.

Key dates for Christmas season store delivery. (Source: SEKO Logistics) “We’re asking clients to plan as far into the future and as accurately as possible for bookings of containers. And if those forecasts are accurate, seasonal planning can work better. When there are fluctuations, when you go beyond or under what’s expected, that’s when problems occur.

“That’s why communication and accuracy are all super important because it helps us lock in beyond three or four weeks,” Bourke said.

Freight forwarders describe a frenzied environment, similar to that of stock traders, and having crews working all night to confirm bookings with U.S. clients when container allocations open up in Asia. They encourage customers to book the moment they get word a carrier has released slots because reservations can be filled in less than an hour.

“If you flinch, it’s gone,” said Khachatryan. “All the shippers are seeing this and next year they’re going to start ordering earlier. So this is why we don’t think there is going to be a slowdown next year, possibly at all. Next year they may be shipping in March for Christmas.”

Analysts expect rates to increase further in the coming weeks and with trade growth forecast to exceed fleet growth there won’t be much relief in supply until new builds start to hit the water in 2023. As for the long-term future of container rates, Khachatryan predicted they won’t return to the low levels from before the pandemic.

“It will probably settle above $5,000 per FEU. And, in reality that’s the true market rate, where ocean carriers don’t lose money. You can’t have such a vital part of the industry constantly operate at a loss.

“When your freight rates are so high that cheaper products are basically priced out of the market, this change is permanent. Quite literally manufacturing is returning to the U.S. With a more automated manufacturing environment, it means these goods won’t ship by ocean.”

In here, we give you all the information you need to know about air freight from China to the USA. Between different ways of freight forwarding, air freight is always suitable for those who have lack of time and the cost is not really important to them.

Although air freight from China to USA is not cheap, there are some ways to reduce the costs in order to save more money. Not only, we do all the freight forwarding with low fee, but we also provide services which are helpful for both the importer and exporter.

TopShipping, International Transport Company provides a wide range of freight services to all American cities.

According to a survey report, all doctors emphasized the importance of medical devices. The survey was conducted in order to find out what will be the future of medical device in 12 years from now i.e., 2030. Let's know more about it.

The survey involved 200 doctors and 2000 patients in the US and UK. Both the doctors and the patients were asked about their trust in the medical devices. They were also asked about the concerns that they may have about the medication.

The role of medical devices

Most cardiologists, oncologists, endocrinologists and pulmonologists said that they need the delivery device in order to make the best decision for a patient. Actually, this device is the interface of "drug-to-patient". Moreover, it makes things a lot easy and convenient for patients. As a matter of fact, the importance of the equipment goes up in case of some specific health conditions.

Nowadays, people want to treat themselves. Taking an oral tablet is easy, but using a special medical device requires support and training. But training is required on the part of doctors as well.

Pharmaceutical companies of today have been facing an increasing competition from other "generic" companies. So, this device gives them a major battleground where they can offer doctors something that can help their patients.

Key findings

Like other medical devices, the delivery devices carries a lot of importance for doctors when they want to prescribe new medicines irrespective of their specialization.

Around 4 in 10 oncologists denied the importance of the device, while 25% said that it plays a major role.

More than 80% endocrinologists and pulmonologists agreed that the device is really important.

Medical devices of 2030

The exciting thing is that the mobile communication industry offers great stuff, and they may have developed a lot by 2030. Let's go back in time. If we go back just 10 years ago, we realize that using a digital dose counter with another device was taken as a high risk. Aside from this, monitoring compliance with some other devices requires a good deal of bespoke docking stations, bespoke electronics and a connection to a computer. On the other hand, nowadays, it has become a lot easier and safer to use a lot of medical devices in every hospital.

Nowadays, it's not difficult to connect medical device with each other. As a matter of fact, you can use the same technology designed for tablet and smartphones. So, the future of medical devices seems very bright. The only thing that is needed is effort on part of doctors. They should understand the importance of the medical equipment so that they could serve their patients in a better way.

Long story short, if you are a doctor and you want to serve your patients better, we suggest that you start using good medical equipment and other automated equipment. This will make your patients happy and you will also be able to broaden your practice. Of course, it will be a win-win deal for both you and your patients.

Medical device consultancy in Australia calls for a close understanding of guidelines of ARGMD. It clearly underlines the information to be supplied with applications to import, export, manufacture and supply medical equipment (devices) in Australia.

The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the competent authority for overall quality and maintenance check of medical equipment in Australia. They are divided into five classes; class I, IIa, IIb, III and Active Implantable Medical devices (AIMD). In vitro-diagnostic devices (IVDs) are divided into four different classes; class I, II, III and IV. The sponsor is responsible for registering the medical equipment (device), and all activities concerning them while manufacturers have obligations to fulfill the requirements. The country specific regulatory services in Australia may include:

1 Medical Device Specific regulation strategy reports in Australia,

2 Medical Device Registration with the TGA,

3 Australia Sponsor Representation for Medical Device manufacturers and TGA Technical documents Preparation and

4 Consultant specific unique line of products

Sponsor is the company that bears the responsibility for the supply of a medical equipment in or from Australia. The sponsor's name and address is generally mentioned on the label.

Manufacturers take complete responsibility for the design and production of a device in case they make the device themselves or subcontract some of these activities. The name and address of the manufacturer appears on the device label mandatorily. For any medical equipment to be supplied in Australia, the device needs to be mandatorily included in the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG) that is regulated by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). As per TGA medical equipment (devices) are those that are used on humans, used for therapeutic benefits, in most cases have a physical or mechanical effect on the body or are utilized to measure or monitor functions of the body. They can range from a bandage that is put on a scratch to lifesaving equipment such as pacemakers that are implanted in human body.

Additional examples of medical equipment (device) may include:

1 artificial hips

2 blood pressure monitors

3 breast implants

4 catheters

5 condoms

6 lubricating eye drops

7 MRI scanners

8 Orthodontics - e.g.,braces, fillings

9 syringes

10 tongue depressors

All medical equipment to be marketed in Australia needs to meet the requirements which are underlined in Chapter 4 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and in the Therapeutic Goods (Medical Devices) Regulations 2002.

The Australian Regulatory Guidelines for Medical Devices (ARGMD) has been developed to:

1 provide guidance to assist manufacturers and sponsors of medical equipment (devices) in meeting the regulatory requirements for legally supplying a medical equipment (devices) in Australia

2 help ensure that medical component applications to the TGA meet all the necessary legislative requirements so that applications are processed with minimal delays

3 enhance the clarity and transparency of the processes: -leading to the legal supply of medical devices in Australia -for meeting the ongoing requirements once a device is available for supply in Australia.

Scope of the ARGMD

The ARGMD is a consolidated reference document detailing the regulatory requirements for medical devices in Australia.

The ARGMD describes the information to be supplied with applications to:

1 Import 2 export 3 manufacture 4 supply medical devices in Australia.

Make markings using a surgical marker to indicate areas to be treated while the patient is in the standing position. Most surgeons use topographic-type markings to indicate areas of maximal bulge centrally with successive concentric circles farther away to indicate adjacent areas where the liposuction should be tapered gently at the periphery. Once the patient is recumbent, lipodystrophic areas become distorted and shift, making discerning the areas to be treated much more difficult. Thus, the patient must be marked prior to positioning, almost always in the standing position. If the patient also understands the markings, he or she can help confirm the areas of treatment and can be involved in the decision-making process, which helps increase patient satisfaction. Zones of adherence and depressions frequently are drawn with a marker of another color to indicate avoidance areas. [5]

Port sites also should be marked with the patient in the standing position. This allows for placement in strategic areas that can be camouflaged by undergarments, shorts, or skirt lines

To treat excess fat, reduction via liposuction is a no-brainer. But how do newer technology-based solutions fit in? The jury is still out according to several industry experts. In the March issue of Cosmetic Surgery Times (CST), Dr. Jane Petro, a Boston-based plastic surgeon points out that "there is relatively little evidence-based medicine regarding the varying liposuction devices used in cosmetic surgery today — particularly regarding the claimed advantages of one technology over the other." Her recommendation to the industry at-large? To fill the void with comparative studies that work towards generating the evidence today’s cosmetic surgeons need to select the best liposuction devices for their practice.

To illustrate the challenge today’s surgeons face, there are several competing types of high-tech liposuction options available:

Power-assisted liposuction Water-assisted liposuction Laser-assisted liposuction Ultrasound-assisted liposuction Radiofrequency-assisted liposuction Which type of liposuction is best for patient and physician? Without data comparison data among varying modalities, it’s challenging, Dr. Petro told CST: "If you look at what makes absolute clinical evidence known to be true, the general history of medicine is filled with what you would call 'expert opinion.' However, expert opinion can be subjective and in part is therefore regarded as a low level of evidence," she’s quoted as saying.

Another expert also weighed in: "I believe that comparative multicentered studies are lacking regarding these newer technologies and their evolving indications. Those of us who are fortunate enough to have multiple devices in our office should conduct comparative studies and share that information because our hands are not tied. We purchase the devices, we may be users of the devices, but we are independent of the companies." That’s what Loma Linda, Calif-based surgeon Gordon H. Sasaki, MD, told CST.

According to the Numbers According to the annual statistics reported by the American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) for 2011, Liposuction is the number 1 procedure in the United States. And there is good reason for the distinction: It’s safe and satisfactory when performed by an experienced physician, according to the experts. Here’s what they told CST about how the high-tech versions compare with traditional liposuction:

Power Assisted Liposuction: Fat extraction is easier, procedure time is shorter, and healing and recovery time is faster (Dr. Sasaki)1-3 Water Assisted Liposuction: Abdominal tissue tightening is equivalent (Dr. Sasaki)4 Laser Assisted Liposuction: Skin tightening and elasticity is greater with LAL (Dr. Sasaki; Smartlipo MPX – Cynosure) "You can take out fat in the challenged lax-skinned patient by any liposuction method. However, unless you have a mechanism that is going to coerce that skin to contract and accommodate to the volume loss, you will be left with flaccid skin. The LAL technique will not only remove fat, but also remodel the collagen for eventual skin tightening," Dr. Sasaki explained to CST.

Give Fat A Chance As fat transfer (liposuction followed by reinjection to face or buttocks) is becoming more commonplace, liposuction technologies such as water assisted and ultrasound assisted have found their niche. Specifically, Dr. Sasaki told CST based on his own study, UAL or VASER (Sound Surgical Technologies) can remove fat and are gentle enough to preserve it for fat grafting. "The choice of device depends on what the indication is for a particular patient and what you want to achieve. Device manufacturers today are refining their devices and trying to create their own special niche, i.e., liposuction plus fat harvesting or liposuction plus skin tightening," he said.

Looking closer at VASER, one study "showed a clinically significant 53 percent improvement in skin retraction per cc of aspirate removed relative to the traditional SAL technique, and an average reduction of 26 percent in blood loss compared to SAL," reports CST.5

But to answer the question of what’s right for each individual patient? CST quotes Dr. Sasaki as saying, "Final surgical outcomes may be equally based on a careful patient selection and knowing what your patients' goals are, the surgeon's artistic ability and procedure know-how, and lastly the device. The device is a device and achieving good outcomes in part depends on how you use it.”

tedrutops tedrutops 4 months ago

Nice shot bro

Eye soothing picture dear

Have you joined a gymnasium?

You tried editing this time?

Nice photo dude

Two little brothers rocking together

She has grown up know

It is too funny

Royal Pic of yours

Idea: Lovely smile

tedrutops tedrutops 4 months ago

Lovely smile

Idea: Super sober

tedrutops tedrutops 4 months ago

Super sober

Ah! It is marvellous

Bless this holy soul, looking so cute